Optimization of the conditions of the drying process of the whole fruit and the co-product of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC) in a foam bed.

Name: Krystal Cardoso Soares Estefan de Paula
Type: MSc dissertation
Publication date: 14/02/2020
Advisor:

Namesort descending Role
LUCIANO JOSE QUINTAO TEIXEIRA Co-advisor *
SERGIO HENRIQUES SARAIVA Advisor *

Examining board:

Namesort descending Role
ANTONIO MANOEL MARADINI FILHO External Examiner *
LUCIANO JOSE QUINTAO TEIXEIRA Internal Examiner *
MARIA EMÍLIA RODRIGUES VALENTE External Alternate *
PATRICIA CAMPOS BERNARDES Internal Alternate *
SERGIO HENRIQUES SARAIVA Advisor *

Summary: The whole fruit (WF) and by-products (BP) of the acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) have nutritional, technological and sensory characteristics that triggered the interest in its use by the industry. However, the high perishability of fresh fruits and the underutilization of by-products make processes, such as foam mat drying, viable to explore the characteristics of the fruit and reduce the environmental impact caused by the inappropriate discard of these by-products. Therefore, this work aimed to optimize the concentrations of foaming agents and the drying air temperature of the foam mat (FM) drying process of WF and BP of acerola. The Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD) was used to optimize the concentrations of Emustab® (EM) and maltodextrin (MD), which varied from 0 to 8%. The influence of these two factors on the response variables of the foam (density and coalescence volume) and powders of whole fruit (PWF) and by-product (PBP) (antioxidant activity - ABTS and DPPH, total phenolic content, vitamin C, solubility, humidity and drying time) was evaluated. The desirability function was used to simultaneously optimize the significant responses (p ≤ 0.05) and provide the optimal concentrations of agents for the drying process of the powders. From the definition of these concentrations, the influence of the drying air temperature (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80°C) was investigated on the same responses analyzed in the optimization of agent concentrations (except density and coalescence volume), which were simultaneously optimized by the desirability to provide the optimum temperature for the drying process of the analyzed powders. In addition, the drying kinetics of PWF and PBP were described, adjusting different mathematical models. For the PWF, the maximum values of vitamin C (vit. C) and solubility (S) and the minimum values of density (d), coalescence volume (CV) and drying time (dt) were obtained from foams with 3.04% EM and 5.12% MD. Regarding the optimization of the temperature, the PWF must be produced at 74.47 °C to maximize its antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH) (AA), phenolic content (PC), vit. C and S and to minimize humidity (Hm) and dt. For the PBP, the maximum values of AA (DPPH), vit. C and S and the minimum values of d, CV, Hm and dt were obtained from foams with 7.92% EM and 3.28% MD. As for temperature optimization, the PBP must be produced at 79.86 °C to maximize its AA (ABTS), PC, vit. C and S and to minimize Hm and dt. In the optimizations steps, the Midilli, Kucuk and Yapar model best described the drying process of both powders. Therefore, the drying of PWF using 3.04% EM and 5.12% MD at a temperature of 74.47 °C, and the use of 7.92% EM and 3.28% MD at a temperature of 79.86 °C in the drying process of the PBP, were the optimal conditions for drying in foam mat of these powders.

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