Evaluation of the effects of consumption of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), kefir and yacon associated with kefir on intestinal and bone health in rats.

Name: Anamares Ferreira Gomes
Type: MSc dissertation
Publication date: 27/11/2020
Advisor:

Namesort descending Role
NEUZA MARIA BRUNORO COSTA Advisor *

Examining board:

Namesort descending Role
ANDRE GUSTAVO VASCONCELOS COSTA Internal Examiner *
MARIA DAS GRACAS VAZ TOSTES External Alternate *
MARIANA GRANCIERI External Examiner *
MIRELLE LOMAR VIANA External Examiner *
NEUZA MARIA BRUNORO COSTA Advisor *
POLLYANNA IBRAHIM SILVA Internal Alternate *

Summary: Kefir is a functional food that has a great source of natural probiotics that provides benefits to the host's intestinal health. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a tuberous root from the Andes region, rich in fructooligosaccharides (FOS), with prebiotic properties that increase the absorption of various minerals, such as calcium, and increase bone mineralization. This study aimed to evaluate both prebiotic and probiotic properties of yacon and kefir, respectively,-and the symbiotic action of the association between them in the intestinal and bone health in rats. Adult Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control (C), kefir (K), Yacon (Y) and yacon + kefir (YK), and fed with their experimental diets for 42 days. Group C received the standard diet AIN-93 M and 1 ml / day of whole cow's milk; group K received the same diet and 1mL / day of the kefir fermented drink containing 10⁸ CFU / mL; group Y received yacon flour in sufficient quantities to provide 5% FOS and 1 mL / day of whole cow's milk, and group YK received the same diet of yacon flour and 1 mL / day of the kefir drink. In the last week, the animals were transferred to metabolic cages to collect 24-hour urine for analysis of intestinal permeability. For this, the animals received via gavage, 1 mL of a solution containing 200 mg of lactulose and 100 mg of mannitol. Feces and urine were collected for 5 days to determine apparent absorption and calcium balance. Blood sample was collected for analysis of serum biomarkers of bone formation Osteocalcin, and bone resorption, type I collagen N-telopeptides (NTx) and type I collagen C-telopeptide (Ctx). The contents of the large intestine were collected for analysis of intraluminal pH and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). The administration of kefir and yacon alone, favored the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, decreasing intestinal permeability, by decreasing the concentration of lactulose and mannitol in the urine, the symbiotic reduced the excretion of mannitol but not lactulose. Both kefir, yacon and symbiotic were able to reduce intestinal pH, but only kefir and symbiotic were effective on increasing levels of sIgA. There was no difference in apparent calcium absorption (p˃0.05) between the groups, however the symbiotic was efficient in the calcium balance and kefir proved to be effective in preventing bone resorption, reducing the levels of osteoclastic markers, Ctx and Ntx.Yacon was effective in bone formation, increasing osteocalcin levels. The combination of yacon and kefir did not present the expected symbiotic result, since it did not significantly favor bone and intestinal health of the animals, that is, the values obtained for the symbiotic were intermediate between the positive effects of yacon and kefir alone. Therefore, yacon and kefir, as a source of prebiotics and probiotics, respectively, presented beneficial effects on intestinal and bone health, highlighting the promising use of these foods for the formation and maintenance of human intestinal and bone homeostasis

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